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Learn to Identify, Cultivate & Deploy Your Unique Character Strengths to Live A Full & Authentic Life …*

Learn to Identify, Cultivate & Deploy Your Unique Character Strengths to Live A Full & Authentic Life ...*  | rethinked.org

“Herein is my formulation of the good life: Using your signature strengths every day in the main realms of your life to bring abundant gratification and authentic happiness.” -Martin Seligman, 161

Last week we looked at the idea set forth by Martin Seligman in Authentic Happiness, that engaging in experiences that produce flow may be a way to build psychological capital. You might recall that achieving flow depends on several factors, key among which, the matching of a challenge to engage your unique and personal strengths. Today, let’s look at what Positive Psychology has to say about these strengths –how we identify, cultivate and exercise them.

CREATING A TAXONOMY OF CHARACTER STRENGTHS 

Given the importance of deploying one’s character strengths in as many situations as possible throughout life to live fully and authentically, Seligman identified the need to create a comprehensive taxonomy of good character. He assembled a team and together they started poring through hundred of ancient texts from various times and cultures -“we read Aristotle and Plato, Aquinas and Augustine, the Old Testament and the Talmud, Confucius, Buddha, Lao-Tze, Bushido (the samurai code), the Koran, Benjamin Franklin, and the Upanishads–some two hundred virtue catalogues in all.” (132) What they found were some ubiquitous virtues, valued across time and culture. These virtues, of which there are six, are: wisdom and knowledge; courage; love and humanity; justice; temperance; spirituality and transcendence. (133) Seligman and his team use the word ubiquitous rather than universal because there are some rare exceptions.

It is true that very rare exceptions can be found; the Ik, for example, do not appear to value kindness. Hence we call the strengths ubiquitous rather than universal and it is important that examples of the anthropological veto (“Well, the Ik don’t have it”) are rare and glaring. This means that quite a few of the strengths endorsed by contemporary Americans are not on our list: good looks, wealth, competitiveness, self-esteem, celebrity, uniqueness and the like. These strengths are certainly worthy of study, but they are not my immediate priority. My motive for this criterion is that I want my formulations of the good life to apply just as well to Japanese and to Iranians as to Americans. (140)

Of course, all of these virtues can mean many different things to different people and there are many ways of achieving them. Since Positive Psychology is based on empirical and scientific study, Seligman and his team had to push further and establish a system by which to identify the measurable and acquirable routes one takes to achieve the virtues–the strengths of character.

To be a virtuous person is to display, by acts of will, all or at least most of the six ubiquitous virtues: wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance and transcendence. There are several distinct routes to each of these six. For example, one can display the virtue of justice by acts of good citizenship, fairness, loyalty and teamwork, or humane leadership. I call these routes strengths, and unlike the abstract virtues, each of these strengths is measurable and acquirable. (137)

SOME COMPONENTS OF STRENGTHS

The first step then in creating a taxonomy of good character is to define the characteristics of the strengths. Seligman starts by highlighting the difference between strengths and talents:

Strengths, such as integrity, valor, originality, and kindness, are not the same thing as talents, such as perfect pitch, facial beauty, or lighting-fast sprinting speed. They are both topics of Positive Psychology and while they have many similarities, one clear difference is that strengths are moral traits, while talents are nonmoral. In addition, although the line is fuzzy, talents generally are not as buildable as strengths. True, you can improve your time in the hundred-meter dash by raising your rump higher in the starting position, you can wear makeup that makes you look prettier, or you can listen to a great deal of classical music and learn to guess the pitch correctly more often. I believe that these are only small improvements, though, augmenting a talent that already exists. Valor, originality, fairness and kindness, in contrast, can be built on even frail foundations, and I believe that with enough practice, persistence, good teaching and dedication, they can take root and flourish. (134)

Strengths are voluntary and involve choices about when to use them and whether to keep building them, but also whether to acquire them in the first place. Meanwhile, talents are relatively automatic, involve some choices, but only of those of whether to burnish it and where to employ it. Seligman then highlights eight additional criterion by which to identify strengths:

  1. Strengths are traits (137)
  2. Strengths are valued in their own right (137)
  3. Strengths are what parents wish for their newborns (137)
  4. Onlookers of strengths being displayed are often elevated and inspired rather than envious or jealous (138)
  5. The culture supports strengths by providing institutions, rituals, role models, parables, maxims and children’s stories. (138)
  6. Role models and paragons in the culture compellingly illustrate a strength or virtue. (138)
  7. Some of the strengths have prodigies, youngsters who display them early on and amazingly well. (138)
  8. Conversely, there exist idiots (from the Greek, for not socialized) with respect to a strength. (139)
  9. The strengths are ubiquitous. (139)

EXERCISE: IDENTIFY YOUR HIGHEST, WEAKEST & SIGNATURE STRENGTHS

My favorite positive “intervention” is merely to ask you to take the VIA Strengths Survey, then think about which of these strengths are the ones you own and how you might use them every day. Quite astonishingly, your own ingenuity and your desire to lead the good life often take over from there, even if I step aside. (137) 

Head over to the Authentic Happiness website and under the tab labeled “Questionnaires” you will find the VIA Survey of Character Strengths. You will need to create an account on the website and there is a fee to take the test, I did it and thought it was worth it. You will receive a 30 page detailed report of your character strengths in rank order. You will also learn about the benefits of each of your signature strengths, ways to cultivate them and avoid the pitfalls of mismanaging your aptitudes. 

Once you have taken the survey, Seligman’s next exercise is to evaluate your results–do the strengths the survey identified feel authentic to you?

Typically you will have five or fewer scores of 9 or 10, and these are your highest strengths, at least as your reported them. […] You will also have several low scores in the 4 (or lower) to 6 range, and these are your weaknesses.

Look at the list of your top five strengths. Most of these will feel authentic to you, but one or two of them may not be the real you. My strengths on this test were love of learning, perseverance, leadership, originality, and spirituality. Four of these feel like the real me, but leadership is not one. I can lead quite adequately if I am forced to, but it isn’t a strength that I own. When I use it, I feel drained, I count the hours until it is done, and I am delighted when the task is over and I’m back with my family.

I believe that each person possesses several signature strengths. These are strengths of character that a person self-consciously owns, celebrates, and (if he or she can arrange life successfully) exercises every day in work, love, play and parenting. Take your list of top strengths, and for each one ask if any of these criteria apply:

  • A sense of ownership and authenticity (“This is the real me”)
  • A feeling of excitement while displaying it, particularly at first
  • A rapid learning curve as the strength is first practiced
  • Continuous learning of new ways to enact the strength
  • A sense of yearning to find ways to use it
  • A feeling of inevitability in using the strength (“Try and stop me”)
  • Invigorating rather than exhaustion while using the strength
  • The creation and pursuit of personal projects that revolve around it.
  • Joy, zest, enthusiasm, even ecstasy while using it.

If one or more of these apply to your top strengths, they are signature strengths. Use them as frequently as you can and in as many settings. If none of the signature criteria apply to one or two of your strengths, they may not be the aptitudes you want to deploy in work, love, play, and parenting. (160)

THE VIRTUES & CHARACTER STRENGTHS – A BRIEF OVERVIEW

{ WISDOM & KNOWLEDGE }

The first virtue cluster is wisdom. I have arranged the six routes to displaying wisdom and its necessary antecedent, knowledge, from the most developmentally basic (curiosity) up to the most mature (perspective). (140) 

  • Curiosity / Interest in the world
  • Love of Learning
  • Judgement / Critical Thinking / Open-Mindedness
  • Ingenuity / Originality / Practical Intelligence / Street Smarts
  • Social Intelligence / Personal Intelligence / Emotional Intelligence
  • Perspective

{ COURAGE }

The strengths that make up courage reflect the open-eyed exercise of will toward the worthy ends that are not certain of attainment. To qualify as courage, such acts must be done in the face of strong adversity. This virtue is universally admired, and every culture has heroes who exemplify this virtue. I include valor, perseverance, and integrity as three ubiquitous routes to this virtue. (145)

  • Valor & Bravery
  • Perseverance / Industry / Diligence
  • Integrity / Genuineness / Honesty

{ HUMANITY & LOVE }

The strengths here are displayed in positive social interaction with other people: friends, acquaintances, family members and also strangers. (148)

  • Kindness & Generosity
  • Loving & Allowing Oneself to Be Loved

{ JUSTICE }

These strengths show up in civic activities. They go beyond your one-on-one relationships to how you relate to larger groups, such as your family, your community, the nation, and the world. (149)

  • Citizenship / Duty / Teamwork / Loyalty
  • Fairness & Equity
  • Leadership

{ TEMPERANCE } 

As a core virtue, temperance refers to the appropriate and moderate expression of your appetites and wants. The temperate person does not suppress motives, but waits for opportunities to satisfy them so that harm in not done to self or others. (152)

  • Self-Control
  • Prudence / Discretion / Caution
  • Humility & Modesty

TRANSCENDENCE

I use “transcendence” for the final cluster of strengths. This term is not popular throughout history—“spirituality” is the label of choice—but I wanted to avoid confusion between one of the specific strengths, spirituality, with the nonreligious strengths in this cluster, like enthusiasm and gratitude. By transcendence, I mean emotional strengths that reach outside and beyond you to connect you to something larger and more permanent: to other people, to the future, to evolution, to the divine, or to the universe. (154)

  • Appreciation of Beauty & Excellence
  • Gratitude
  • Hope / Optimism / Future-Mindedness
  • Spirituality / Sense of Purpose / Faith / Religiousness
  • Forgiveness & Mercy
  • Playfulness & Humor
  • Zest / Passion / Enthusiasm

Source: Seligman, Martin. Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology To Realize Your Potential For Lasting Fulfillment. New York: Free Press, 2002. Print.

{ S H O S H I N } “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, but in the expert’s there are few.”

{ S H O S H I N } “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, but in the expert’s there are few.” | rethinked.org

Shoshin is a Zen buddhist term, which translates to “beginner’s mind.” Beginner’s mind is the goal of Zen practice and can best be explained with this sentence from Zen master Shunryu Suzuki: “In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities, but in the expert’s there are few.” Essentially, beginner’s mind is the capacity to approach all new moments, whether the experience at hand be known and|or habitual or not, with a sense of openness and curiosity; to not limit ourselves to past experiences and knowledge in our appraisal of the present moment.

Unfortunately, “The older we get, the further we get from the truth and the more we search for answers. If only we could ask the real experts, life would go a whole lot smoother.” Which is where Little Kids. Big Questions. comes in.

Little Kids. Big Questions. is one of Soul Pancake‘s video series which takes the concept of shoshin quite literally by turning to beginner’s minds masters –little kids–to get their ‘expertise’ on life’s big question. The series, which debuted January 7th of last year, touches upon a wide range of complex topics, from religion, honesty, purpose to life and death.

MEET THE EXPERTS:

To celebrate Valentine’s day, here is the Little Kids. Big Questions. episode on love. Delight in the tiny experts’ brilliant answers to some big questions:

  • What is this strange and all encompassing word, love?
  • How do you know when you’re in love, what does it feel like inside?
  • What does it mean to be romantic?
  • Can boys and girls be best friends or do they always fall in love?
  • How do you know when you’re ready to get married?

Little Kids. Big Questions. – Love, published January 14, 2014.

Celebrating Frida

Happy birthday Frida Kahlo!

Frida, who was born in Coyoacán in 1907, would have been 106 today. She is a great rethinked…* inspiration & hero and we hope you join us in celebrating her this weekend.

Watch a free online biographical documentary on Frida:

 

Part I Part II Part III Part IV Part V Part VI

Enjoy some of the her own and family photographs from Frida Kahlo: Her Photos by James Oles, Horacio Fernadez, Pablo Ortiz Monasterio and of course Frida Kahlo

 

    

 

 

 

Te vas? No. Alas rotas

 

Excerpts from her journal printed in The Diary of Frida Kahlo: An Intimate Self-Portrait edited by Carlos Fuentes

 

(Left) HIS BROTHER NEFERDÓS

(RIGHT) AVE [AVI-] RIA [ARY]

 

(Left) STRANGE COUPLE FROM THE LAND OF THE DOT AND LINE . ____________ . ____________ . “ONE-EYE” MARRIED THE BEAUTIFUL “NEFERISIS’ (THE IMMENSELY WISE) IN A MONTH OF HEAT AND VITALITY. . OF THIS UNION BORN TO THE THEM WAS A BOY STRAGE OF FACE AND HE WAS NAME FERUNICO, AND IT WAS HE WHO FOUNDED THE CITY COMMONLY KNOWN AS “LOKURA”

(Right) Portrait of Neferúnico. Founder of Lokura.

Alone with my great happiness with the very vivid memory of the little girl. It has been 34 years since I lived that magical friendship and every time I remember it it comes alive and grows more and more inside my world. PINZÓN 1950. Frida Kahlo LAS DOS FRIDAS Coyoacán Allende 52

                     Jealous


(Left) Feet what do I need them for If I have wings to fly. 1953

 

(Left) my fault? I admit, my great guild as great as pain it was an enormous exit which my love came through. A very quiet passage that was leading me toward death I was so neglected! That it would have been best for me. You are killing yourself! YOU ARE KILLING YOURSELF There are some who will never forget you! I took their strong hands Here I am, for them to live. Frida

(Right) Years. Waiting with anguish hidden away, my spine broken, and the immense glance, footless through the vast path….Carrying on my life enclosed in steel. Diego!

(Left) NOT AS MAD AS A HATTER

 (RIGHT) JULY 1953. Cuernavaca Supporting points In my entire figure there is only one, and I want two. For me to have two they must cut one off It is the one I don’t have the one I have to have to be able to walk the other will be dead! I have many, wings. Cut them off and to hell with it!!

 

(Left) The horrible “Eyesaurus” primitive ancient animal, which dropped dead to link up the sciences. It looks up . . and has no name. –We’ll give it one: THE horrible EYESAURUS!

(Right) Astonished she remained seeing the sun-stars and the live-dead world and being in the shade.

(Left) pain – pleasure and death are no more than a process for existence XXXX the revolutionary struggle XXXXX in this process is a doorway open to intelligence

(Right) Anniversary of the revolution 7th of November 1947 Tree of Hope stand firm! I’ll wait for you– You responded to a sense with your voice and I’m full of you, waiting for your words which will make me grow and will enrich me. DIEGO I’m alone.

Who is this idiot?

 

(right) dog

(left) What a dish!

 

 

   (left) This pen is no good for this paper. I have never seen tenderness as great as Diego has and gives when his hands and his beautiful eyes touch Mexican Indian sculpture.

(right) No one is more than a function–or part of a total function. Life goes by, and sets paths, which are not traveled in vain. But no one can stop “freely” to play by the wayside, because he will delay or upset the general atomic journey. From this comes discontent. From this comes despair and unhappiness. We all would like to be the sum total and not one of the numerical elements. Changes and struggles disconcert us, terrify us because they are constant and certain, we search for calm and “peace’ because we foresee the death that we die every second. Opposites unite and nothing new or arhythmic is discovered. We take refuge in, we take flight into irrationality, magic, abnormality, in fear of the extraordinary beauty of the truth

(left) Sleep Sleep Sleep Sleep Sleep Sleep I’m falling asleep

 (right) 1st. I’m convinced of my disagreement with the counterrevolution–imperialism–fascism–religions–stupidity–capitalism–and the whole gamut of bourgeois tricks–I wish to cooperate with the Revolution in transforming the world into a classless one so that we can attain a better rhythm for the oppressed classes. 2nd. a timely moment to clarify who are the allies of the Revolution    Read Lenin–Stalin–Learn that I am nothing but a “small damned part of a revolutionary movement. Always revolutionary never dead, never useless.


               Don’t come crying to me! Yes, I come crying to you.

                      (Left)  March 53. My Diego. I’m no longer alone. Wings? You keep me company. You lull me to sleep and make me come alive

(Right) I love Diego ~ Love

(Right) Chabela Villasenor– Ruddy Long Live comrades STALIN, MAO      Life   Death     WORLD DOE PAINTER POET     Long live Marx Engels Lenin

                      (Left) Color of poison. Everything upside down. ME? Sun and moon feet and Frida

Perhaps the most salient way to pay homage to Frida’s life and work is by embodying her spirit and attitude in our thoughts and actions. Frida dug deep inside herself and lay bare what she found, in all its beauty, gore, messy and chaotic glory. She sought the very human, those parts in herself that defined her condition, perception and experience of existence. She was not afraid to search for the things that hurt, and she was not ashamed to the show the ugly parts either. Frida’s art and life are one of the most touching, deep and honest message of love and respect for the human being–in all that she encompasses:  her flaws and weaknesses and immense capability and eternal possibility to imagine a different way.

So this weekend make a special effort to get in touch with the very human, very organic, messy and beautiful side of yourself. Realize that we all bleed and that we are all in search of connection and meaning. Take a step back and evaluate yourself honestly, what are the more negative things you see? How could you create a design challenge around the things you want to change? And how could you celebrate all the positive you see in yourself and others? Make this weekend a time of reflection and rethinking; get outside of yourself and into others, act with courage, compassion and imagination. & journal away…

~ Happy Frida Weekend ~

 

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