Tag collaboration

{ Yes, And…* } Applied Improvisation, Role-Playing Games & the Importance of Retaining A Childlike Capacity for Wonder …*

{ Yes, And...*  } Applied Improvisation, Role-Playing Games & the Importance of Retaining A Childlike Capacity for Wonder ...* | rethinked.org -Photo: Elsa Fridman

A new study on the beneficial effects of positive emotion on physical health has been popping up all over my newsfeed this week. On the Greater Good Science Center blog, Yasmin Anwar writes;

“Researchers have linked positive emotions—especially the awe we feel when touched by the beauty of nature, art, and spirituality—with lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are proteins that signal the immune system to work harder.

While cytokines are necessary to fighting off disease and infection, continuously elevated levels have been linked with chronic inflammation and a whole host of attending disorders such as heart disease, type-2 diabetes, clinical depression and Alzheimer’s disease to name few.

In two separate experiments, more than 200 young adults reported on a given day the extent to which they had experienced such positive emotions as amusement, awe, compassion, contentment, joy, love and pride. Samples of gum and cheek tissue, known as oral mucosal transudate, taken that same day showed that those who experienced more of these positive emotions, especially awe, wonder and amazement, had the lowest levels of the cytokine, Interleukin 6, a marker of inflammation.” (Can Awe Boost Health?)

While the exact relationship between levels of cytokines and the frequency at which individuals are able to experience awe remains unclear, on the Science of Us blog, Melissa Dahl quotes the study’s lead authorJennifer Stellar explaining why cytokine levels function as good predictors of one’s ability to experience positive emotion:

“One reason is that proinflammatory cytokines encourage social withdrawal and reduce exploration, which would serve the adaptive purpose of helping an individual recover from injury or sickness. … [A]we is associated with curiosity and a desire to explore, suggesting antithetical behavioral responses to those found during inflammation.”

One prompt for cultivating more awe in one’s life then, would be to be more intentional about fostering our desire to explore and connect with those around us and our environments. One of the best ways to do just that, which we are all naturally very good at, (or at least were at some point in our lives) is through play. Sadly, for many of us, play is something that gets pushed to the background as we age and we wake up one day worrying we’d look silly or be wasting our time should we engage in play activities. I was happy to come across two resources this week that each addressed this point and showed the importance and benefits of engaging in play as adults. So if better health isn’t motivation enough, check out the two resources below to learn about how play and more generally, being open to the moment, the environment and those around you, comes with a host of social, professional and cognitive benefits.

Patrick Allan details The Surprising Benefits of Role-Playing Games (and How to Get Started) over on Lifehacker. Meanwhile, in the TEDx talk below, Paul Jackson, founder of the Applied Improvisation Network looks at how improvisation skills are in fact life skills which are relevant to everyone– individuals and organizations alike:

“One of the areas that they’re taking [applied improvisation] into now is in business schools. Improvisation is on the agenda of more than half of the top twenty business schools around the world. Leaders are coming to learn skills for the future to build and create new types of organizations in which “yes…and” can be a core part. They learn for example the importance of collaborating with each other and with their colleagues and how to deal with uncertainty and being more confident in a world of complexity and constant change; and these are skills that are available and useful to us all.”


Applying Improvisation: The Power of ‘Yes…And’: Paul Z Jackson at TEDxLSE

“You have two choices in life: you can say no and be rewarded with safety; or you can say yes and be rewarded with adventure.”

How do you make toast? {The design world and visual problem solving…*}

One of my courses this semester is called Visual Thinking, and we are studying how visual representations facilitate communication and thought. I am excited to share more with you as the course progresses, but when I found this TED talk last week, I thought it the perfect segue between design thinking (something we love here at rethinkED…*) and the power of visual explanations

Tom Wujec is a designer who specializes in visualization. In his new TED talk – Got a wicked problem? First, tell me how you make toast – he discusses the “design thinking way” of confronting a challenge: making your ideas visible, tangible, and consequential. 

How do you make toast…* ??

He explains his theory by starting off with a simple problem-solving exercise. How do you make toast? He has asked thousands of people and teams to draw their toast-making methods for him.

[All images from www.drawtoast.com/gallery ]

Systems Models Thinking…*

While the drawings demonstrate differences in the processes and focus of the act, one thing they all have in common is their structure; almost all of the drawings have nodes, representing tangible objects, and links, forming the connections between them. These combinations create the systems models that make our mental models of “how something works” visible. You can measure the complexity of a mental model by the number of nodes, and Wujec has found that most have between 5 and 13 nodes to be visually effective.

Semantic_Network_7_Nodes_6_Links

What these systems models illustrate is that we intuitively all know how to break down complex things into simple things.

The power of sticky notes and groups…*

Interestingly, Wujec has found that variants of the draw toast exercise can create better outcomes. For instance providing movable cards or sticky notes leads to better systems. People tend to develop nodes and then rearrange them like lego blocks. The malleability of the nodes facilitates rapid iteration of expressing and reflecting. In essence, it’s the design process.

Additionally, in a group, it gets REALLY messy for a while, but ultimately people build on each other ideas and the final model integrates a diversity of viewpoints, with branches and parallel patterns to represent different paths to the solution.

The Visual Revolution…*

Wujec states that he has been seeing a visual revolution in business – people are beginning to pick up on this trend and collaboratively draw out their challenges and problems. Through this process of iterative refinement of nodes and links, organizations find clarity. While the final models are important, the conversations around the models are important too.

Wujec’s ideas have much in common with the design thinking process of Design Thinking for Educators (more about this in a blog post here), which places an emphasis on iteration, collaboration, and the power of the sticky note.

However, the idea of creating a systems model for your problems is a new and useful one. It is easy to be overwhelmed when faced with a daunting challenge. Breaking it up into small manageable pieces, and using the “sticky note” method to keep these fluid and iterate on one’s ideas can result in surmountable steps to solutions. Wujec invites us to try this method with his website drawtoast.com and concludes, so the seemingly trivial design exercise of drawing toast helps us get clear, engaged and aligned. 

Watch the video below:

 

Assertive Inquiry: An Excellent (and Free) Tool For Better Teamwork, Creative Listening & Decision-Making …*

Assertive Inquiry: An Excellent (and Free) Tool For Better Teamwork, Creative Listening & Decision-Making ...* | rethinked.org

Assertive Inquiry is a framework for engaging in productive dialogue that derives from the methods and theories of leading theorist of organizational learning Chris Argyris. It is an approach to communication, which, “blends the explicit expression of your own thinking (advocacy) with a sincere exploration of the thinking of others (inquiry).”

“In other words, it means clearly articulating your own ideas and sharing the data and reasoning behind them, while genuinely inquiring into the thoughts and reasoning of your peers.”

Playing To Win: How Strategy Really Works, pg. 136

I first learned about assertive inquiry while reading Roger Martin’s Opposable Mind: Winning Through Integrative Thinking (2009). Martin calls Assertive Inquiry one of the top three most important tools of an integrative thinker (along with generative reasoning and causal modeling) as it is a particularly helpful framework for communicating through clashing models and efficiently bringing together often contradictory models and various points of view into a whole greater than its parts.

I remember thinking it sounded like an incredible tool and skill to develop but failed to follow up on practicing. A few weeks ago, I read Martin’s latest book, Playing to Win where he once again mentions the power of Assertive Inquiry in helping teams harness their diversity and enhance and elevate collaboration, ideation and decision-making. Assertive Inquiry starts with a simple beginning stance:

“I have a view worth hearing, but I may be missing something.” It sounds simple, but this stance has a dramatic effect on group behavior if everyone in the room holds it. Individuals try to explain their own thinking–because they do have a view worth hearing. So, they advocate as clearly as possible for their own perspective. But because they remain open to the possibility that they may be missing something, two very important things happen. One, they advocate their view as a possibility, not as a single right answer. Two, they listen carefully and ask questions about alternative views. Why? Because, if they might be missing something, the best way to explore that possibility is to understand not what others see, but what they do not.”

Playing To Win: How Strategy Really Works pg.136-137

Once you are aware of the perspective from which you are approaching the conversation and have focused on cultivating the proper stance, there are three key tools that you must employ as the conversation unfolds: 

  1. Advocating your own position and then inviting responses (e.g., “This is how I see the situation, and why; to what extent do you see it differently?”)
  2. Paraphrasing what you believe to be the other person’s view and inquiring as to the validity of your understanding (e.g., “It sounds to me like your argument is this; to what extent does that capture your argument accurately?”)
  3. Explaining a gap in your understanding of the other person’s  views, and asking for more information (e.g., “It sounds like you think this acquisition is a bad idea. I’m not sure I understand how you got there. Could you tell me more?”)

These kinds of phrases, which blend advocacy and inquiry, can have a powerful effect on the group dynamic. While it may feel more forceful to advocate, advocacy is actually a weaker move than balancing advocacy and inquiry. Inquiry leads the other person to genuinely reflect and hear your advocacy rather than ignoring it and making their own advocacy in response. 

Playing To Win: How Strategy Really Works pg.136-137

Assertive Inquiry could have huge payoffs for teamwork. It creates an atmosphere of authentic openness, inquiry and creative listening. It also seems like an excellent framework for having better conversations all around–at work or at home, with one individual or many. Try it out …*

Jugaad: A Hindi Concept for “Spotting Opportunities in Adverse Circumstances & Improvising Solutions Using Simple Means”

Jugaad: A Hindi Concept for "Spotting Opportunities in Adverse Circumstances & Improvising Solutions Using Simple Means" | rethinked.org

“Jugaad is a Hindi word meaning an innovative fix or an improvised solution born from ingenuity. Jugaad is the gutsy art of spotting opportunities in the most adverse circumstances and resourcefully improvising solutions using simple means. Jugaad is about seeing the glass always half-full.”  – Navi Radjou

I came across the term “jugaad” yesterday while reading a listicle on Mother Nature Network about  7 cultural concepts we don’t have in the U.S. I was struck by how closely the Hindi concept resonated with the way our team has framed, constructed and explored the idea of rethinking–as being about making do with what we have by reframing problems into opportunities instead of constantly trying to reinvent the wheel or start things anew. For us, rethinking is a method and framework for innovating and creating smart solutions to the myriad problems–big and small–that crop up in our lives, work and communities. But rethinking is also a value, a belief in living lightly, in making the most in a world of shrinking resources and increasing complexity. It is a relentless commitment and belief in our collective ability to enhance our lives and those of others.

Jugaad is a Hindi word that means “an innovative fix” or a “repair derived from ingenuity,” — think a jury-rigged sled for snowy fun, or a bicycle chain repaired with some duct tape. It’s a frequently used word in India where frugal fixes are revered. But the idea has further merit beyond figuring out solutions to get by with less. It also encapsulates the spirit of doing something innovative. As the authors of Jugaad Innovation write in Forbes, they see jugaad in many other places than the repair shop: “In Kenya, for instance, entrepreneurs have invented a device that enables bicycle riders to charge their cellphones while pedaling. In the Philippines, Illac Diaz has deployed A Litre of Light — a recycled plastic bottle containing bleach-processed water that refracts sunlight, producing the equivalent of a 55-watt light bulb — in thousands of makeshift houses in off-the-grid shantytowns. And in Lima, Peru (with high humidity and only 1 inch of rain per year), an engineering college has designed advertising billboards that can convert humid air into potable water.”

Source: 7 cultural concepts we don’t have in the U.S

After reading the Forbes article, I researched the term and found an article on Harvard Business Review where Navi Radjou, Jaideep Prabhu, and Simone Ahuja–the authors of Jugaad Innovation: Think Frugal, Be Flexible, Generate Breakthrough Growth (2012)– outline four operating principles for innovating the Jugaad way:

  1. Thrift not waste. This first rule — which promotes frugality — helps tackle scarcity of all forms of resources.
  2. Inclusion, not exclusion. This second rule helps entrepreneurial organizations to put inclusiveness into practice — by tightly connecting with, and harnessing, the growing diversity that permeates their communities of customers, employees, and partners.
  3. Bottom-up participation, not top-down command and control. This third rule drives collaboration. CEOs who tend to act as conductors must learn to facilitate collaborative improvisation just as players in jazz bands do.
  4. Flexible thinking and action, not linear planning. This fourth rule facilitates flexibility in thinking and action. Jugaad-practicing firms are highly adaptable as they aren’t wedded to any single business model and pursue multiple options at any time.

Source: Jugaad: A New Growth Formula for Corporate America

What are some opportunities for jugaad in your community? 

Empowering and unifying communities through { art } …*

In a recent TEDglobal 2014 talk, artists Jeroen Koolhaas and Dre Urhahn talk about their work painting entire impoverished neighborhoods, from Rio to Philadelphia. They enlist the help of community members, move into the communities, and paint the towns in vibrant beautiful colors, with murals and other interesting pieces. As Koolhas and Urhahn explain, “ in a communal effort, together with the people, you can almost work like in an orchestra, where you can have a hundred instruments playing together to create a symphony.” In the video below, you can see the beautiful symphonies they have created. 

This work reminded me a lot of a suburb I visited once in South Africa. Woodstock is a suburb outside of Cape Town that is transforming into an art haven. Similarly to the stories Koolhaas and Urhahan mention, the murals that are painted in Woodstock have a way of unifying and brightening up a community that is struggling to get on its feet. I went on a tour with one of the men who runs the project, and he explained that many local artists apply to get rights to paint murals in the community. All pictures in this article are ones I took while visiting. Each mural must convey something about South Africa – many speak to the overwhelming love and strength of the community, others make statements about preserving the incredible wildlife native to this country.

As explained more thoroughly in this article, these murals have had a way of rejuvenating the community. From my experience, the contrasts of the murals with the broken down buildings and the surreal backdrop (Cape Town is on the coast, surrounded by mesas and mountains), creates a symphony it and of itself. The experience so closely related to my general experience of South Africa. The article was written in 2011, and from my visit in 2013 I can say that Gordon has definitely attracted more artists to the area.

Oftentimes we let art and culture fall to the wayside while we focus on STEM, but projects like this can remind you of the power and empowering properties of art. Transforming the feeling of a community can do wonders for its children. It can inspire, it can bring joy. It adds a sense of self-identity with the walls and roofs surrounding you. Community projects like this can unify and build connections and help communities to forge ahead and make real progress.

Bringing this back to the classroom, murals and street art can be educational and important even for students in our own schools. I still remember painting murals in the hallways of my elementary school. It was an honor bestowed upon groups of students who presented their ideas to the administration and art teacher. But, more than that, it was a way for us as a community to take ownership over our school. It was a way of making the school building feel a little more like our own. It also was the sort of project that took planning and teamwork, as well as thoughtful consideration of what sorts of murals would be beneficial to our community.

How has street art transformed the world around you? Could it? …* 

{ global learning } through Mystery Skype in our interconnected world …*

Traveling to a new place and immersing oneself in its culture is an amazing opportunity and experience. However, it can be unrealistic and infeasible for many students to travel like this, especially young learners. Yet with thoughtful use of technology platforms, we can provide students with rich cultural experiences without ever leaving the classroom.

Something I am super excited about is Mystery Skype, an educational initiative to bring classrooms together from all over the world. To take part in this educational game, teachers can register their classrooms and then connect with other classrooms around the world. After arranging a time for the lesson, the classrooms then Skype with one another and the aim of the game is to try and guess the location of the other classroom by asking questions. Mystery Skype has been used for all sorts of subjects, including geography, history, language, math, and science, and students of all ages seem to be entranced by this clever way to bridge cultural divides.

In a recent edSurge article, Brandi Leggett talks about the transformative experiences her students have had with Mystery Skype. Her third grade classroom in Kansas has worked with students in Rio de Janeiro, Utah, Manhattan, Japan, Israel, Kenya, and Pakistan. Through these experiences, they have learned a myriad of lessons, both formal and informal. The students have been amused by accents, amazed by time zones, and shocked by realities such as war drills in Israel or the conditions of classrooms in a slum in Kenya. The game itself teaches them about the geography and culture of the places they Skype, but also requires them to be more aware and knowledgeable about their own communities. Throughout each lesson, they have learned valuable communication skills, both verbal and written.

Global collaboration is not new, but as technology and access to technology progresses, the experiences are becoming more and more immersive and inclusive. Collaborating with classrooms around the world, the learning opportunities become intersectional and endless.

Learn more about Mystery Skype below:

The Wisdom of 6.5-Year-Olds: What Cannibalistic Cocoons & Jumping Through Fire Can Teach Us About Change & Empathy …*

The Wisdom of 6.5-Year-Olds: What Cannibalistic Cocoons & Jumping Through Fire Can Teach Us About Change & Empathy ...* | rethinked.org

Hola rethinkers* Elsa here, back from my camino! Had a truly splendid time and made it all the way to Santiago. Walking 800 km has given me plenty of time to think (a really really good combination and ancient tradition this walking and thinking business). I’m excited to share with you some of the insights and discoveries I made on my trip but as I’ve only just got back and barely had time to digest my experience, I’m going to write about something completely unrelated which happened this past weekend: I got to hang out with a six-year-old—correction, a six-and-a-half-year-old— and I was struck by how much adults, especially those interested in challenging the status quo and developing their capacity for empathy, stand to learn from young children.

MEET MY NEW FRIEND MATHIEU & HIS LEGO HERO FACTORY TOYS–BULK & STORMER

I met Mathieu at his parents’ house where I was having a long Sunday lunch. He sat at the table with us to eat a bit and then disappeared around the garden to play. When dessert was served, Mathieu came back for some ice cream, holding in his hand a Christmas catalogue. I asked him if he had started making his list for Santa and if he’d show me what it was he wanted. We went over the catalogue together and he explained the various delights of each toy he had circled. I then asked him what was the one toy he most hoped Santa would bring him, to which he answered Lego’s Hero Factory before disappearing to his room to bring back two specimens.

I spent over an hour talking with Mathieu about his Lego Hero Factory toys and playing with him. I could hardly say which of us had the most fun. But the reason I wanted to write about my encounter with Mathieu, goes beyond wanting to brag about my awesome new tiny friend or my love of all things Lego. Having no children of my own, I rarely get the chance to hang out with the six-and-a-half-year-old crowd and that’s a real shame. I’m passionate about storytelling, empathy and the architecture of change and as my time with Mathieu showed me, we (the part of the population who no longer values half years in our age) have much to learn in all three of these interrelated domains from children.
STORYTELLING 101 – WHY THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CANNIBALISTIC JUMPER & CANNIBALISTIC COCOON MATTERS
 
What quickly became apparent to me as Mathieu and I played with Bulk and Stormer is that the toys were artifacts from an incredibly rich imaginary world, one which Mathieu inhabits very comfortably. Mathieu painstakingly explained the origin story of the Hero Factory world, the main hero, (Evo, for the uninitiated) the good guys and the bad. When I tried to rephrase what he had said to make sure I had understood, I confused the cocoons and the planters several times and each time, Mathieu patiently corrected me. Once I had gotten the full back story, we started playing and caught up in the excitement of the game, I started making what can best be described as attack noises – “Grrrrrrrrr,” “pooowww,” “watch out!” Mathieu looked at me a bit embarrassed and then said, as nicely as he could, “It’s a machine, it doesn’t talk.”

 

I think the fact that Mathieu corrected me each time I confused the cocoons and the jumpers or when I got carried away with battle sounds was critically important. He sensed my genuine interest in entering the Lego Hero Factory world and took it upon himself to guide me in. Each imaginary world operates according to a specific set of rules (so while vegetal cocoons attack robots in the Hero Factory world, machines do not speak or make battle calls) and it is these shared laws that keep the world bounded together and allow it to be a shared imaginary space. Creating these rules and then exploring the possibilities of the worlds created within them is what fiction writers, dreamers, and rethinkers * of all type do. It is no secret that soft skills are becoming increasingly important as the pace of change accelerates and the collective problems we face become increasingly wicked. We need people who can craft solid, inhabitable alternatives–“what ifs” that offer better, more sustainable futures for more people. And that starts with storytelling and storytellers. We need to cultivate and amplify children’s natural capacity for creating imaginary worlds and we need to learn from them how we ourselves might regain that wonderful and critical ability to ask “what if?” and run with it.

 

EMPATHY & PLAY – JUMPING THROUGH FIRE REGULARLY WILL HELP KEEP YOU NIMBLE IN YOUR ABILITY TO ENTER OTHERS’ INTERNAL WORLDS
Not only are children naturally adept storytellers, they are also able to grasp with ease the nuances of others’ stories (I think the proper buzzword to describe this aptitude, these days, would be creative listeners). In many ways, each of us, carries and inhabits his or her own world. Our reality is constantly mediated by our perception; our understanding of ourselves and our relationship to others is shaped by a mix of past experiences, character traits, hopes, neuroses, tensions and dreams. In essence, empathy is about being able to experience what an exterior situation might feel like when viewed from the particular lens of another (an Other’s internal world). Children do this extremely often when they are at play, seemingly without any effort. Just a few weeks ago, I was having a drink with a friend on a rather deserted village town square while two little girls played nearby. The girls were running around and jumping, taking turns yelling, “now water, now fire.” Evidently, they were on an epic journey through the elements and shared a common imaginary space, worlds away from the physical environment, that had them running around panting with excitement. They were able to take turns designing the world and could seamlessly go from their own internal reality to that of their friend’s, experiencing with equal ease and immediacy what was in their friend’s mind’s eye as what was inside their own.

 

It’s interesting to note this link between play and empathy, how they seem to go hand in hand naturally. Perhaps it is because we try to stamp out our own playfulness as we age that we become more and more stuck within our own world and less able (or willing?) to enter into those of others. My advice? Go play with a tiny human.
play & rethink …*

{ Tinkerers Delight } Download PSFK’s Makers’ Manual …*

Cool free new resource alert for rethinkers–the PSFK’s Makers’ Manual.

The Maker’s Manual explores how everyone from do-it-yourselfers and artists to inventors and entrepreneurs are leveraging new tools, platforms and services to take their ideas from concepts to reality.

learn, make & rethink …* 

Rethinking …* Process – Understanding & Embracing the Emotional & Subjective Aspects of Venturing Into the Unknown

“We’d all studied science as if it’s a series of logical steps between question and answer. But doing research is nothing like that. At the same time, I was also studying to be an improvisation theater actor. So physics by day and by night–laughing, jumping, singing, playing my guitar. Improvisation theater, just like science goes into the unknown because you have to make a scene on stage without a director, without a script, without having any idea what you’ll portray or what the other characters will do. But unlike science, improvisation theater, they tell you from day one what’s going to happen to you when you get on stage: you’re going to fail miserably. You’re going to get stuck, and we would practice staying creative inside that stuck place.” – Uri Alon

 

In this TED talk, systems biologist, Uri Alon, urges us to rethink our schema of science–not as a linear path from point A to point B–but as a courageous, often highly uncomfortable, uncharted flight into the unknown. Our cultural emphasis on answers over process often leads to discouragement and feelings of alienation for those willing to take a risk and venture into the fertile lands of the unknown. Uri drew from his work in improv theater to reframe and work through the discomfort of process in his scientific research and is now attempting to help other researchers name, accept, and understand the various emotional and subjective aspects of venturing into the unknown.

While Uri’s talk is centered primarily around the sciences, he provides some valuable insights on reframing, understanding and thriving within the discomfort of the unknown that can be translated to any field or experience that requires pushing past the known.

*

“Challenge the Known & Embrace the Unknown” – Advice to Your Younger Self (That Your Present Self Can Put Into Practice) …*

"Challenge the Known & Embrace the Unknown" - Advice to Your Younger Self (That Your Present Self Can Put Into Practice) ...* | rethinked.org

LinkedIn is running a series of articles entitled If I Were 22, where they ask various influencers to share the advice they would give to their younger self. I’ve gathered some of the ones I like below. What about you? What would you say to your 22 year old self? I was thinking about what type of advice I would give to my own younger self and this is what I wish I had known at 22 (and wish I would reliably put into practice now):

Don’t fear or resist change, it will happen every single day for the rest of your life. Learn to be adaptive and nimble. Be open to learning from new situations—realize how much power you have in how engaged you are in something or not. Learn to reframe uncertainty into opportunity. And when you are afraid, know that it generally means you need to take a risk.

Be kind –in thought and action. You will jump to conclusions, you will make assumptions, your brain will try to find and create meaning in all situations—it’s human and you have no control over that. You do however, have the choice of selecting the kinder assumptions, the kinder conclusions. Choose kindness, you will have a happier and more fulfilling relationship to the world and to yourself.

My final and perhaps most practical piece of advice is: hey, take it easy, Martha Stewart! While I applaud and cherish your untarnished enthusiasm in the face of enduring and repeated cooking disasters, take it easy with the million cooking and baking ware. That pan you don’t have that’s for a very specific dish? Adapt! (see point number 1). Don’t go out and buy the bloody thing. You will move in and out of many apartments over the next decade, and when you find yourself sitting in the center of a room with boxes surrounding you, packed floor to ceiling and stuff still everywhere, know that this is in large part—my dear–the cooking and baking. Remember: nomad.

*

When you’re just starting out, it may seem tempting to settle quickly into a career path, just because it seems reasonable or stable. But I encourage all 22-year-olds to do the opposite. Go out and explore. Start figuring out what you’re really passionate about, what really makes you tick. Hone your talents and pick up useful skills. And if you find yourself in a place you don’t really want to be, go out and look for something different.

Mike Feinberg, Co-Founder at KIPP

*

Looking back, there are a few things I would have told my 20-something self to do differently.

Connect with people outside your major or discipline. I was so focused on being an industrial designer, I didn’t hang out with engineers or business students or artists or writers. I didn’t know what other opportunities were out there for burgeoning design thinkers. Thankfully, the Internet means today’s grads have more context and greater chances to collaborate with people from different backgrounds. Seize every opportunity.

Know that the culture of where you work is as important as the work you do. During school, I had an enviable internship at one of the trendiest design studios in London. Known for its cutting-edge product designs, the studio leads were brash, macho, live-on-the-edge types who believed in the lone creative genius. I was wowed by their work, but didn’t find my time there creatively rewarding. I craved collaboration and teamwork. It wasn’t until I started to work with Bill Moggridge that I learned just how critical the culture of a workplace is to one’s creativity. It’s one of the main reasons I’m still at IDEO.

Make time to travel. I went straight from undergrad to grad school. I wish I had had the confidence to take a year off and explore the world, to add some life experience to my academics. It was only after I graduated that I started to travel. It might be a cliché, but getting out of your own culture makes you more mindful and observant. You question everything you once took for granted. When my own children are trying to figure out what’s meaningful to them, what direction to take their lives next, I tell them to take out their passports. It’s time to book a trip.

Tim Brown, CEO at IDEO

 …*

Challenge the known and embrace the unknown. Accepting the known and resisting the unknown is a mistake. You should do exactly the opposite: challenge the known and embrace the unknown. Now is the time to take this kind of risk because you have less to lose and everything to gain. Great things happen to people who question the status quo.

Be brief. Contrary to school, in the work place there are few minimums. In my entire career, I can count on one hand the instances when an email, presentation, or report was too short. The perfect length for everything is when it is “complete”—more is less, and “shock and awe” doesn’t work in business or war. Here are guidelines: email—five sentences; presentations—tens slides and twenty minutes; report—one page.

Tell stories, do demos, and use pictures. The most enchanting people tell stories, do demos, and use pictures to influence and persuade others. They do not belittle or berate. They paint a picture in people’s minds whether the medium is social media, email, in-person presentations, phone calls, or video conferences. There is only one Steve Jobs, but if you want a shot at being the next Steve Jobs, learn to communicate using stories, demos, and pictures.

Continue to learn. Learning is a process not an event, so you should never stop learning. Indeed, it gets easier to learn once you’re out of school because the relevance of what you need to learn becomes more obvious. Indeed, the day you graduate is when the real learning begins.

Guy Kawasaki, Chief Evangelist at Canva

*

So the advice I’d give to young people today is this: don’t just climb the ladder of success – a ladder that leads, after all, to higher and higher levels of stress and burnout — but chart a new path to success, remaking it in a way that includes not just the conventional metrics of money and power, but a third metric that includes well-being, wisdom, wonder and giving, so that the goal is not just to succeed but to thrive.

– Arianna Huffington, President and Editor-in-Chief at The Huffington Post Media Group

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