Tag Carol Dweck

{ Empathy Is a Choice …* } Research Says: Empathy is only as limited as we choose it to be

{ Empathy Is a Choice ...* } Research Says: Empathy is only as limited as we choose it to be | rethinked.org

“Arguments against empathy rely on an outdated view of emotion as a capricious beast that needs to yield to sober reason. Yes, there are many situations in which empathy appears to be limited in its scope, but this is not a deficiency in the emotion itself. In our view, empathy is only as limited as we choose it to be.” 

In a recently published article, psychologists Daryl CameronMichael Inzlicht, and William A. Cunningham dispute the notion that empathy is a limited commodity, making the much more compelling argument that empathy is a choice.

We believe that empathy is a choice that we make whether to extend ourselves to others. The “limits” to our empathy are merely apparent, and can change, sometimes drastically, depending on what we want to feel.

The co-authors highlight several studies which show that the absence of empathy is linked to extrinsic and context-specific factors. By disproving the idea that our failures of empathy are linked to inherent limits in our capacity for the emotion, these studies offer an inspiring and compelling case for choosing to empathize.

. . . * 

Two decades ago, the psychologist Daniel Batson and colleagues conducted a study that showed that if people expected their empathy to cost them significant money or time, they would avoid situations that they believed would trigger it. More recently, one of us, Daryl Cameron, along with the psychologist Keith Payne, conducted an experiment to see if similar motivational factors could explain why we seem more empathetic to single victims than to large numbers of them.

Participants in this study read about either one or eight child refugees from the Darfur region of Sudan. Half of the participants were led to expect that they would be asked to make a donation to the refugee or refugees, whereas the other half were not. When there was no financial cost involved in feeling empathy, people felt more empathy for the eight children than for the one child, reversing the usual bias. If insensitivity to mass suffering stemmed from an intrinsic limit to empathy, such financial factors shouldn’t have made a difference.

. . . *

Some kinds of people seem generally less likely to feel empathy for others — for instance, powerful people. An experiment conducted by one of us, Michael Inzlicht, along with the researchers Jeremy Hogeveen and Sukhvinder Obhi, found that even people temporarily assigned to high-power roles showed brain activity consistent with lower empathy.

But such experimental manipulations surely cannot change a person’s underlying empathic capacity; something else must be to blame. And other research suggests that the blame lies with a simple change in motivation: People with a higher sense of power exhibit less empathy because they have less incentive to interact with others.

. . . *

Likewise, in another recent study, the psychologists Karina Schumann, Jamil Zaki and Carol S. Dweck found that when people learned that empathy was a skill that could be improved — as opposed to a fixed personality trait — they engaged in more effort to experience empathy for racial groups other than their own. Empathy for people unlike us can be expanded, it seems, just by modifying our views about empathy.

C H O O S E   E M P A T H Y   . . . *

Source: Empathy Is Actually a Choice via New York Times, published July 10, 2015

“I believe in and surrender to solid quality, serendipity and nomadism.” – Our Interview with Dominic Randolph, Head of School & Rethinked Co-Founder …*

"I believe in and surrender to solid quality, serendipity and nomadism." -Our Interview with Dominic Randolph, Head of School & Rethinked Co-Founder ...* |rethinked.org

I may be a bit biased here but I could not be any more excited to share Dominic’s interview today. Dominic Randolph is the Headmaster of the Riverdale Country School, where he has been prototyping various ways to rethink what it means to learn to and for change–notably by exploring the intersections of Design Thinking, Integrative Thinking and Positive Psychology with education. He is the co-founder of our team and, on a more personal note, my father and one of my very best friends. Connect with Dominic on Twitter @daar17.

What was the last experiment you ran? 

Changing spaces where I work. Finding small “in-between” spaces to work with my computer. Changing work spaces all the time. Not being in a fixed spot.

 

What are some of the things that you fear and how do you manage your fear?

Life is fear and finding ways to embrace fear. I believe that we all have a “Woody Allen voice” in our heads constantly narrating our anxieties. I think you achieve things by listening to the voice indeed, but basically ignoring it. Things tend to turn out most of the time quite well, but the little voice assumes the worst. Acting positively and confidentially mitigates the voice’s affect on one’s decisions. And yet, without the voice, the fear, life would not be as amusing nor would one do anything really. It is the comparison between the status quo of the “little worried voice” and taking action that makes you feel a sense of achievement.

 

What breaks and delights your heart? In other words, what do you believe in and surrender to? 

I believe in and surrender to solid quality, serendipity and nomadism.

 

What is the most provocative idea you’ve come across in the past decade

Carol Dweck’s “Growth Mindset” is one of the most provocative, elegant and most difficult to employ idea that I have come across in the last decade. The other one would be “design thinking” that I read in Dan Pink’s book A Whole New Mind and on Tim Brown’s blog “Design Thinking”. The concepts of human-centered design, prototyping and divergent thought as elements of design thinking have changed my life.

 

Can you tell me about a transformational moment in your life?

I often think that the most transformational moments are not the most groundbreaking or the most striking. They are small moments that lead to change. The most transformational moments in my life were dinner debates with my aunt, mother and brother while growing up and meeting, Kris, my future wife, and Elsa, my future daughter, at a small gallery in Sarlat, France.

 

 WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO YOU TO LIVE A GOOD LIFE?

Finding meaning and purpose in one’s life leads to living a good life.

 

 COULD YOU SHARE ONE PIECE OF ADVICE ABOUT THE ART OF BEING HUMAN?

Empathize with others–really try to put yourself in their shoes and listen well. Also, draw your thoughts out on a regular basis. Drawing is deeply human.

 

WHAT IS YOUR DRIVING QUESTION?

How can I be my better future self? What legacy will I choose to leave on this earth?

 

 ANY BOOKS OR MOVIES YOU RECOMMEND?

Movies: Withnail and I by Bruce Robinson, En Sus Ojos by Juan Jose Campanella, Mifune’s Last Song by Soren Kragh-Jacobsen, The Trip by Michael Winterbottom, Naked by Mike Leigh

Books: Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne, Le Citte Invisibili by Italo Calvino, Distant Relations by Carlos Fuentes, And Our Faces, My Heart, Brief as Photos by John Berger, In Patagonia by Bruce Chatwin, Any short story by Alice Munro, La Peau du Chagrin by Balzac…

Music: GoldbergVariations played by Glenn Gould, Exile on Main Street by the Rolling Stones, Every Breaking Wave by U2, Ink by Coldplay, Heysatan by Sigur Ros, Wait it Out by Imogen Heap, Afterlife by Arcade Fire, Bien Avant by Benjamin Biolay, 400 Lux by Lorde, Creep by Radiohead…

Images: Morandi still lives, Piranesi etchings, Cartier-Bresson photographs, Cindy Sherman portraits, Klein blue paintings, Henry Moore sculptures…

THANK YOU, DOMINIC!

. . .

The Visual Case for a Growth Mindset – Striking Demonstration of How Intelligence Grows Just Like A Physical Muscle …*

The Visual Case for a Growth Mindset - Striking Demonstration of How Intelligence Grows Just Like A Physical Muscle ...*

“Your intelligence can actually be changed. What we’ve learned, what researchers have taught us, is that our brains are actually a lot like a muscle. We know that you can grow your muscles by going into the gym and doing exercise and straining your muscles. You don’t just work on things that are easy for your muscles to do, you do things that your muscles have to struggle with, that your muscles have to strain with and then they rebuild themselves and they come back stronger. By struggling, it’s a signal to your body to devote more resources to that part of the body. And we see that exact same thing with the brain. “

Growth mindset, as you likely know by now, is the belief that intelligence, personality, and any number of other cognitive or emotional capacities–think creativity, empathy, optimism, etc.– are not fixed but learnable, and growable with effort and practice over time.

The idea that emotional and cognitive capacities function much like physical muscles that become stronger and better developed through effort over time is a common analogy pervading the field of psychology. Numerous studies looking at a vast range of capacities support the idea that these strengths are indeed dynamic and learnable. If you want a good starting point to review some of the research, I highly recommend Carol Dweck‘s Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. But if you want a quick and very powerful way to drive home for yourself the validity of a growth mindset, watch the video from Khan Academy embedded below.

“The big takeaway from this whole area of research is you absolutely can change your intelligence, that your brain is like a muscle, the more you use it, the stronger it gets. And that the best way to grow it, isn’t to do things that are easy for you, that might help a little bit, but what really helps your brain is when you struggle with things. And actually, research shows that you grow the most not when you get a question right, but when you get a question wrong. […] research tells us: when you get something wrong, when you challenge your brain, when you review why you got it wrong, when you really process that feedback, that’s when your brain grows the most and that if you keep doing that, you’re well on your way to having a stronger more able, and I guess you could say, smarter brain.”

reframe adversity as growth & flourish …* 

Learning to Become Better Learners …*

“Whatever we learn to do, we learn by actually doing it; men come to be builders, for instance, by building, and harp players by playing the harp.” – Aristotle

I recently discovered Trevor Ragan’s “Train Uglyvideo essay series, in which he explores various aspects of the learning process.

Train Ugly is the marriage of two concrete foundations of learning: motor learning and growth mindset. We’re going to dive into the science and share these incredibly important principles with you.

Every ten days, Ragan releases a new video essay in which he attempts to disseminate the science behind a growth mindset and motor learning to help individuals become better learners. The presentation may be a bit basic for some of our readers but the videos do a great job of giving an easy and enjoyable (loved the bit where we hear from Aristotle) overview of key insights on the learning process. And as he observes in one of the videos: “”Understanding how the brain works, helps us learn better.”

l e a r n   &   r e t h i n k  …*

 A study on Praise and Mindsets – Stanford Professor, Carol Dweck looked into the effects that praise had on mindsets. The results were unreal.

Learning — And How To Do It Better – Brains, Skills, Learning & Lizards: The Definitive Guide to Becoming a Butt Kicker

 

Carol Dweck on Helping Kids Move From the Tyranny of Now Into the Power of Yet …*

In this short TEDx talk, psychologist Carol Dweck gives an overview of her research on the power of mindset to facilitate or hinder children’s capacity to connect with and activate their potential. The ways in which children frame and cope with challenges and difficulties have enormous implications on their ability to thrive. Students with a fixed mindset are prisoners to the tyranny of the now, believing that each challenge is a reflection of a fixed level of a given capacity–be it intelligence, creativity or athleticism. Meanwhile, students with a growth mindset luxuriate in the power of yet, understanding that each new challenge is an opportunity to learn something new and to practice and refine skills. Dweck shares some tips and strategies for helping students move from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset–praising process rather than intelligence to help students redefine things like effort and difficulty, for example.

watch & rethink …* 

{ Creativity & Happiness } An Overview of Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience …*

{ Creativity & Happiness } An Overview of Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience ...* | rethinked.org

Screen Shot from Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi’s 2004 TED talk – Flow: The Secret to Happiness

 

As I’m nearing the end of the Positive Psychology cycle of the rethinked*annex project, I have decided to include two additional ideas–flow and growth mindset–before moving on to the next and final cycle. Because the meaningful happy life is so deeply dependent on the successful and recurring deployment of one’s signature strengths in as many of life’s arenas as possible, I have decided to turn to Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi‘s concept of flow for some additional guidance on how to nurture and cultivate my pursuit of what Seligman terms, “the gratifications.” And because the nurturing and deployment of strengths and skills can be so radically improved by the cultivation of a growth mindset, I have decided to reread Carol Dweck‘s Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. I’ll share a couple more interventions to experiment with based on these two ideas in the coming weeks.

For now, I invite you to watch Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi’s TED Talk – Flow, the secret to happiness, in which he gives some context to his research around the core question of “what makes life worth living?” and gives an overview of the flow experience.

{ Growth Mindset } The One Thing I Wish I’d Learned A Decade Ago …*

{ Growth Mindset } The One Thing I Wish I'd Learned A Decade Ago ...* | rethinked.org

Last week I wrote about a question- What’s the one thing that you learned in the last decade that you had wished someone had told you 10 years ago?– that Wooster Collective posed to several graffiti artists and curated some of my favorite responses. I’ve been thinking about how this question applies to my own experience of the past ten years and started brainstorming a list of possible key insights. After sitting with my list for a bit, I realized that most of the items on it were directly related to the concept of growth mindset, championed by Carol Dweck. Growth mindset is the belief that capacities—whether intellectual, emotional, physical, etc.–can be learned and acquired with effort over time. That potential is unknowable. Thinking back on the past ten years, I have no doubt that if I had known about and embraced a growth mindset, I would have saved myself much heartache and worry. I would likely have taken more chances and been more compassionate and patient with myself and others. I wouldn’t have been so bogged down by an unattainable quest for perfection, which means I would have procrastinated a lot less and not engaged in as many other self-sabotaging behaviors to save myself from facing my crippling fear of failure. I would likely have been able to keep things more in perspective. Learning about the growth mindset was an utterly transformative experience for me. It allowed me to translate what I know about motivation, effort, and goal-setting into tangible behaviors. But most importantly it has set me free emotionally—free to experiment and fail gloriously and free to find the strength and will to try again. In the words of Carol Dweck, “It’s a learning process—not a battle between the bad you and the good you.”

What about you? What’s the one overarching thing you wished you’d known a decade ago?

reflect & rethink …* 

{ The Science of Character } Character Strengths Can Be Learned, Practiced & Cultivated …*

This whole idea about developing our character really took shape in 2004, when two psychologists suggested that instead of just focusing on all the things that can go wrong with us, it’s also important to celebrate all the things that can go right. You see, they looked throughout history to identify core virtues that humans across cultures have agreed lead to a meaningful life. And then they identified 24 character strengths that when practiced and developed could lead to these virtues.”

 

{ The Science of Character } Character Strengths Can Be Learned, Practiced & Cultivated ...* | rethinked.org

Periodic Table of Character Strengths via LetItRipple.org

 

Hope everyone found a way to celebrate yesterday’s International Day of Happiness. Some of you might have also been celebrating Character Day, which was organized by Tiffany Shlain and her team for the premiere of their short film, The Science of Character.

The Science of Character is an 8 minute film that explores the neuroscience and social science behind character development and our ability to shape who we are. 

The film is available in Arabic, German, French, Hindi, Russian, Spanish, Swahili, Chinese and was shown at over 1500 screenings happening all over the world (in over 40 countries and all 50 states). Also, fun rethinked …* fact– our own Dominic Randolph was an advisor for the film. Be sure to check out the resources over on letitripple.org to learn more about character strengths and the research behind them. Teachers, you’ll be pleased to discover discussion guides for elementary, middle, and high school students to further discuss character in your classrooms.

Did you do anything special to celebrate Character Day? How did it go? What did you learn? Let us know.

rethink & grow …* 

“There are a lot of exciting conversations happening about character, one that I find interesting is that there are seven strengths in particular that can be real game-changers in academic achievement, success and happiness no matter what your circumstances. Those seven are: optimism, gratitude, social intelligence, curiosity, self-control, enthusiasm and perseverance, also known as grit. While there have been many different theories about character throughout history, what scientists in this field agree on is that character matters and that character strengths can be learned, practiced and cultivated ”  

The Science of Character via Tiffany Shlain & The Moxie Institute Films‘s YouTube Chanel, published March 20, 2014.

Watch your thoughts: they become words

Watch your words: they become actions

Watch your actions: they become habits

Watch your habits: they become your character

Watch your charater: it becomes your destiny

-Frank Outlaw

How Is It Possible That As A Society We’re Not Asking Schools To Develop A Growth Mindset In Children?

How Is It Possible That As A Society We're Not Asking Schools To Develop A Growth Mindset In Children? | rethinked.org

Screen Shot from Eduardo Briceño’s Talk at TEDxManahattanBeach, 2012.

 

“The moment we believe that success is determined by an ingrained level of ability, we will be brittle in the face of adversity.” – Josh Waitzkin

In his TEDx talk, Eduardo Briceño, co-founder and CEO of Mindset Works, highlights the power of beliefs and mindset to shape performance. After reviewing several of Carol Dweck‘s findings on the power of a growth mindset— the belief that various capacities can be improved through effort over time–to facilitate success and mastery, Briceño asks:

How is it possible that as a society we’re not asking schools to develop a growth mindset in children? Our myopic efforts to teach them facts, concepts and even critical thinking skills is likely to fail if we don’t also deliberately teach them the essential beliefs that will allow them to succeed–no only in school, but also beyond.

Briceño ends his talk by sharing three things that we can all do to instill a growth mindset in ourselves and those around us:

1. Recognize that the growth mindset is not only beneficial but it’s also supported by science. Neuroscience shows that the brain changes and becomes more capable when we work hard to improve ourselves.

2. Learn and teach others about how to develop our abilities. Learn about deliberate practice and what makes for effective effort. When we understand how to develop our abilities, we strengthen our conviction that we’re in charge of them.

3. Listen for your fixed mindset voice and when you hear it, talk back with a growth mindset voice. If you hear, “I can’t do it,” add, “…yet.”

The Power of Belief – Mindset and Success: Eduardo Briceno at TEDxManhattanBeach, published November 18, 2012

Carol Dweck On The Power Of Mindset To Help Children (& Adults) Reach Their Potential …*

Carol Dweck On The Power Of Mindset To Help Children (& Adults) Reach Their Potential ...* | rethinked.org

 

If you haven’t yet had time to read Carol Dweck‘s brilliant book on the power of mindsets to shape students’ motivation and learning, or if you have read it and just can’t get enough–I highly recommend the video below. In a lecture given at the RSA in September 2013, Dweck summarizes the key findings from her work on mindsets and gives some practical tips for translating those insights into impact.

How To Help Every Child Fulfill Their Potential – Carol Dweck via The RSA, published September 18, 2013

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